GSM (from Groupe Special Mobile, which was later renamed Global System for Mobile Communications) is a digital communication standard developed back in the late 80s of the last century. GSM should be attributed to the networks of the second generation, that is, 2G – digital cellular communication.
The standard got its name in honor of the analysis group, which created the standard (Groupe Special Mobile). Its development began in 1982. The goal is to build a single cellular system for all European countries in the 900 MHz band. Commercial GSM networks began to operate in mid-1991..
As of this writing, GSM is the most common communication standard in the world. It accounts for more than 80% of the global mobile communications market..
Services provided by GSM
The main services:
- Voice Communication.
- SMS messaging.
- Fax Transmission.
- Data transfer.
Additional services include:
- Voice mail.
- Defining Incoming Numbers.
- Call hold.
- Voice communication with multiple parties (conference calling).
- Prohibition of certain services.
Mobile phones are released with support for 4 frequencies: 850 MHz, 900 MHz, 1800 MHz and 1900 MHz.
Phones are divided into classes depending on the number of ranges that the devices support. For example, a telephone operating in one frequency is called single-band, while a telephone operating in three frequencies is called a tri-band. In some models, you can choose a specific frequency.
Advantages and disadvantages of GSM
Let’s start with the disadvantages:
- Speech distortion in digital processing and data transfer possible.
- Possibility of communication at a distance of no more than 120 km from the nearest station.
Now – the benefits:
- Smaller size and weight telephones that use analog standards.
- Good call quality.
- High network capacity.
- Good protection against listening and illegal use.
- Very widespread around the world.
- Roaming opportunity.